1800
July 4, 1856
Dispersal of Free State LegislatureArmy troops under Col. E.V. Sumner assemble in front of Constitution Hall-Topeka to break-up the Free State legislature in session.
1801
President: Thomas Jefferson
1802
1803
1803
Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana PurchaseThe United States bought land that later became Kansas, Missouri and all or part of 12 other states.
1804
1804 - 1806
Lewis & Clark ExpeditionThe Corps of Discovery explored the Missouri River to its headwaters and continued on to the Pacific Ocean before returning east.
1805
1806
1807
1808
1808
Slave importation is legally abolished
Slave importation is legally abolished
1809
President: James Madison
1810
1811
1812
1812 - 1815
War of 1812The War broke down Native American resistance in the Old Northwest Territory. It involved tribes that would later be removed to Missouri and Kansas and set off a period of Indian removal.
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
President: James Monroe
1818
1819
1820
1820
Missouri CompromiseIn an effort to preserve the balance of power in Congress between slave and free states, the Missouri Compromise was passed admitting Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. The compromise also prohibited slavery in any future states carved out of the remaining northern portion of the vast Louisiana Purchase Territory. Throughout the pre-Civil War period and during the war, Missourians were sharply divided in their opinions abut slavery and in their allegiances, supplying both Union and Confederate forces with troops. However, the state itself remained in the Union. Missouri Compromise was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott decision of 1857, which ruled that Congress did not have the authority to prohibit slavery in the territories.
1821
1821
MO State- hood
1821 - 1850
Westward movement along the overland trailsSeveral “jumping off” places for the frontier overland trails are found in Freedom’s Frontier National Heritage Area.
1822
1823
1823
Johnson v. M'Intosh - Supreme Court DecisionThis document stated that Indians could occupy lands within the United States, but could not hold title to those lands. This was because their "right of occupancy" was subordinate to the United States' "right to discovery."
1824
1825
President: John Quincy Adams
1826
1827
1827 - 1842
Government Strongholds EstablishedMilitary installations were strategically placed to check the westward expansion of Euro-American settlers, thus "protecting" the Indians who were being resettled in the region and to patrol the commercial trails like the Santa Fe Trail in Freedom's Frontier.
1827
Fort Leavenworth Established
Fort Leavenworth EstablishedFort Leavenworth was established by the U.S. Army. It remains the oldest continuously active army post west of the Mississippi River.
1828
1829
President: Andrew Jackson
1830
1830
Indian Removal ActAfter four months of strong debate, President Andrew Jackson signed the bill into law. Land greed was a big reason for the federal government's position on Indian removal. The desire for Indian lands was also abetted by the Indian hating mentality that was peculiar to some American frontiersman. These Indian lands are today a part of Freedom’s Frontier.
1830
Joseph Smith founds JC of LDS Church
Joseph Smith founds JC of LDS ChurchJoseph Smith founds Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
1831
1830
"Civilizing" the American IndianFor countless Indians, the American thrust for land meant the end of their traditional way of life. Many missions were established in Kansas Territory as manual training schools with an emphasis on assimilation — removing Indian children from their parents and forcing them to learn to live in what was then referred to as the dominant society.
1832
1833
1834
1834
Indian Territory established
Indian Territory established
1835
1836
1837
President: Martin Van Buren
1838
1838
Trail of Tears
Trail of Tears
1839
1840
1840 - 1860
Oregon Trail
1841
President: Harrison(William Henry Harrison - Died in office)
1842
President: John Tyler
January 1, 1842 - April 20, 1853
Fort Scott Operating as Army FortFort Scott established to assist in monitoring the Permanent Indian Frontier. After closure in 1853, Ordnance Sergeant McCann and Sutler Hiero Wilson (with his family and slaves) remain as caretakers.
1843
1844
1845
President: James K. Polk
May 18, 1845 - September 1, 1845
Col. Stephen W. Kearney's Dragoon Expedition
Col. Stephen W. Kearney's Dragoon ExpeditionFive companies of dragoons from Fort Leavenworth and Fort Scott patrol the Oregon Trail to South Pass, turn south, then return east via the Santa Fe Trail in a Great Plains show of force that covered 2,066 miles in 99 days.
1846
1847
1848
1849
President: Taylor(Zachary Taylor - Died in office)
1850
President: Millard Fillmore
1850 - 1870
Plains Indians cede landPlains Indians cede land in exchange for reservation
1851
1852
1853
President: Franklin Pierce
1854
1854
Indian Territory becomes part of Kansas
Indian Territory becomes part of KansasUpper half of Indian Territory becomes part of Kansas Territory.
1854
Republican Party formed for abolition of slavery
1854 - 1865
Missouri-Kansas Border WarFor more than six years before the first shots at Fort Sumter were ever fired, a Border War had been in progress between Missouri and Kansas. There erupted a series of violent events--involving anti-slavery and pro-slavery elements. These incidents were attempts to influence whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free or slave state. The debate over slavery influenced political parties and political administrations nationwide and contributed significantly to bringing about the Civil War.
1854
First election in Kansas Territory
First election in Kansas TerritoryGovernor Reeder calls the first election in Kansas Territory; vote to elect delegate to Congress - John W. Whitfield.
May 26, 1854
Adoption of Kansas-Nebraska Act
Adoption of Kansas-Nebraska ActThe Act served to repeal the Missouri Compromise which prohibited slavery north of latitude 36°30´. It organized the two territories and served to open them up for Euro-American/non-Indian settlement. Pro-slavery supporters from Missouri, as well as the South, and anti-slavery partisans from the North and East rushed in to settle in what is today known as Freedom’s Frontier and to affect the outcome of the first Kansas elections. Much conflict ensued.
July 28, 1854
First organized band arrives in Kansas
First organized band arrives in KansasFirst organized band of New Englanders arrives in Kansas and soon founds the city of Lawrence.
October 7, 1854
Andrew Reeder arrives at Ft. Leavenworth
Andrew Reeder arrives at Ft. LeavenworthFirst territorial governor, Andrew Reeder, arrives at Ft. Leavenworth.
November 29, 1854
First election in Kansas Territory
First election in Kansas TerritoryGovernor Reeder calls the first election in Kansas Territory; vote to elect delegate to Congress - John W. Whitfield.
1855
March 30, 1855
Election for members of territorial legislature
July 1, 1855
So-called "Bogus Legislature" meets at Pawnee
August 14, 1855
First convention of free-staters
First convention of free-statersFirst convention of free-states gather in Lawrence and call for election of delegates to free-state constitutional convention.
August 16, 1855
Wilson Shannon replaced Governor Reeder
September 5, 1855
Free-State Party Forms
Free-State Party FormsFree-staters meeting in Big Springs to form Free-State Party
October 23, 1855
Draft "Topeka Constitution"
Draft "Topeka Constitution"Free-state delegates assemble in Topeka to draft "Topeka Constitution" prohibiting slavery in KT; Charles Robinson "elected" governor.
November 21, 1855
Charles Dow killed by Franklin Coleman
Charles Dow killed by Franklin ColemanFree-stater Charles Dow killed by pro-slavery supporter Franklin Coleman; beginning of "Wakarusa War."
1856
May 10, 1856
Free-state "Governor" Robinson arrested
Free-state "Governor" Robinson arrestedFree-state "Governor" Robinson arrested in Lexington, Mo.
May 21, 1856
Sack of Lawrence
Sack of LawrenceSack of Lawrence by Sheriff Jones and pro-slavery forces
May 24, 1856
John Brown's Pottawatomie MassacreJohn Brown's Pottawatomie Massacre in Franklin County.
June 2, 1856
Battle of Black Jack, near Baldwin, Douglas County
Battle of Black Jack, near Baldwin, Douglas County
June 4, 1856
Battle of Franklin, near LawrenceJune 4-5
August 16, 1856
Battle of Fort Titus, near Lecompton, Douglas Cnty
August 30, 1856
Battle at Osawatomie, Miami County
September 13, 1856
Battle of Hickory Point, north of Osklalooa
1857
President: James Buchanan
1857
Kansas ratifies anti-slavery constitution
January 12, 1857
Democratic Party formed in Kansas
Democratic Party formed in KansasLegislature meets in Lecompton
March 1857
Dred Scott Case…Supreme Court Decision
Dred Scott Case…Supreme Court DecisionThe decision declared that all blacks – enslaved people as well as free -- were not and could never become citizens of the United States. The court also declared the 1820 Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, thus permitting slavery in all of the country's new territories.
September 7, 1857
Lecompton Constitutional Convention opens
October 5, 1857 - October 6, 1857
Free-state victory in election for territory legFree-state victory in the election for territorial legislature.
December 2, 1857
Free-state convention in Lawrence
Free-state convention in LawrenceA free-state convention, presided over by C. Robinson, convened in Lawrence “Over 1,200 Free-State men, headed by Gen. Lane and the Lawrence brass band, march to Lecompton and halt in front of Legislative Hall. Cheer are given for the Topeka Constitution, and groans for the Lecompton swindle…” (December 7, 1857, Annals, 200)
December 21, 1857
Lecompton Constitution is approved
Lecompton Constitution is approvedWith free-staters refusing to participate in election, Lecompton Constitution is approved.
December 23, 1857 - December 24, 1857
Free State Party Convention
Free State Party ConventionFree State Party Convention. Thomas Ewing Jr organizes “bolters” away from Lane radicals control of the convention.
December 7, 1857
Special session of new free-state
Special session of new free-stateSpecial session of new free-state controlled legislature calls for popular vote on Lecompton Constitution.
1858
January 1858
Candle-Box Afffair
Candle-Box AfffairFraud discovered in elections. US Government employees implicated. Lecompton dies as a result.
January 14, 1858
Investigate election fraud
Investigate election fraudLegislature passes law to investigate election fraud in 12/21/1857 and 1/4/1858 elections.
January 4, 1858
Lecompton Constitution rejected in second vote
Lecompton Constitution rejected in second voteLecompton Constitution rejected in second vote in which free-staters participate; final rejection comes on August 2, 1858.
March 3, 1858
Kansas Constitutional Convention
May 18, 1858
Leavenworth Constitution
Leavenworth ConstitutionLeavenworth Constitution approved by Kansas voters; rejected by U.S. Congress
May 19, 1858
Marais des Cygnes Massacre, Linn County
1859
October 4, 1859
Wyandotte Constitution ratified by Kansas voters
November 1859
Free-Staters elected overwhelm state positions
Free-Staters elected overwhelm state positions
December 2, 1859
John Brown hanged for treason
John Brown hanged for treasonat Charlestown, Va
1860
April 3, 1860 - October 25, 1861
Pony Express BeginsFirst Pony Express rider leaves St. Joseph carrying mail that would be delivered in California ten days later.
February 12, 1860
Kansas admission billKansas admission bill introduced in U.S. House of Representatives.
1861
President: Abraham Lincoln(Died in office.)
January 29, 1861
Kansas Statehood
Kansas StatehoodWith conflict continuing along the Kansas-Missouri border and Southern states starting to secede from the Union, the U.S. Congress admitted Kansas as a “free state”, its founding constitution written and approved in the territory over a year before.
March 26, 1861
First state legislature convenes in Topeka
April 12, 1861
Civil War officially declared
Civil War officially declaredContinuously escalating strife on the Missouri-Kansas Border and between North and South was declared a true civil war on April 12, 1861, when Confederate artillery opened fire on Fort Sumter, a federal fort off the coast of Charleston, South Carolina.
April 18, 1861
Jim Lane’s Frontier Guard Protects the White House
April 20, 1861
Missouri State troops seize Liberty ArsenalMissouri State troops seize Liberty, Missouri Arsenal, largest one west of St. Louis. A body of armed men from Clay County took control of the Liberty arsenal resulting in a few cannon and some 1500 arms being distributed to Southern men of surrounding counties.
April 29, 1861
Capt. Lyon takes control of St. Louis Arsenal
May 10, 1861
Camp Jackson Affair
May 25, 1861
Captain Constanin Blandowsky dies
Captain Constanin Blandowsky diesCaptain Constanin Blandowsky, wounded at Camp Jackson, dies of wounds. 1st Federal Officer killed in the line of duty.
June 11, 1861
Capt Lyon & Gov Claiborne Jackson meet
Capt Lyon & Gov Claiborne Jackson meetCapt.Lyon & Governor Claiborne Jackson meet at Planter’s House in St. Louis. Talks break down.
June 13, 1861
Government Evacuates Jefferson City
Government Evacuates Jefferson CityPro-Confederate Government Evacuates Jefferson City, MO.
June 17, 1861
Battle of Boonville (Boonville Races)
June 18, 1861
Major R. T. Van Horn met oppositionMajor R. T. Van Horn met opposition from the citizens of Harrisonville. At 2:00 in the afternoon his men were surrounded by approximately 300-400 horsemen. Rather than make a stand they retreated to Camp Price southwest of Harrisonville.
August 10, 1861
Battle of Wilson's Creek
Battle of Wilson's CreekBattle of Wilson's Creek near Springfield, Mo.; troops of the First and Second Kansas engaged.
August 28, 1861
Skirmish in Lexington
Skirmish in LexingtonThere was a skirmish in Lexington between the local State Guard and Home Guard.
August 5, 1861
Battle of Athens in Northeast Missouri
September 11, 1861 - September 20, 1861
Skirmish and Battle of Lexington
September 13, 1861
Begins 7 day battle/siege of Lexington, MO.
September 17, 1861
Colonel John Scott headed toward Liberty
Colonel John Scott headed toward LibertyUnion troops under the command of Colonel John Scott headed toward Liberty engaging the Southerners at Blue Mills Landing. Losing all but one of their cannon the Federal troops retreated, losing four men and twenty wounded.
September 23, 1861
The Sack & Burning of Osceola, MO
The Sack & Burning of Osceola, MOThe Sack & Burning of Osceola, MO by Jim Lane’s troops
November 21, 1861
Battle of Carthage, MO (Dry Fork)
1862
May 2, 1862
General James Blunt takes command
General James Blunt takes commandGeneral James Blunt takes command of Department of Kansas; First Indian regiment organized.
May 7, 1862 - May 8, 1862
Battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas
July 1, 1862
Pacific Railway ActPassed by Congress in 1862 (12 Stat. 489), authorized the construction of the first transcontinental railway line connecting the east and west coasts furthering opening settlement in what is now Freedom’s Frontier National Heritage Area.
August 14, 1862
George Caleb Bingham Home CollapsesThe George Caleb Bingham Home built just 5 years prior to this date serves as a Union Prison and collapses killing several Confederate women.
August 17, 1862
General Thomas Ewing Jr. issues Order No. 10
General Thomas Ewing Jr. issues Order No. 10General Thomas Ewing Jr. issues Order No. 10 – directing disloyal people be removed from the border counties.
September 7, 1862
William C. Quantrill raids Olathe
William C. Quantrill raids OlatheWilliam C. Quantrill raids Olathe; several men killed and newspaper offices destroyed.
October 17, 1862
First Kansas Colored Regiment OrganizedFirst Kansas Colored Regiment organized, Bourbon County
October 22, 1862
Battle of Old Fort Wayne
Battle of Old Fort WayneBattle of Old Fort Wayne , Cherokee Nation (Beattie’s Prairie, near Maysville, AR). Some of Jim Lane’s Kansas Troops participate.
October 29, 1862
Skirmish at Island Mound
Skirmish at Island Mound1st Kansas Colored Infantry in first action by any African-American Troops.
November 28, 1862
Battle of Cane Hill, Arkansas
Battle of Cane Hill, ArkansasJim Lane’s Kansas Troops participate.
November 4, 1862
Thomas Carney elected governor of Kansas
December 2, 1862
Battle of Prairie Grove, ArkansasKansas troops participate in the slug-fest.
December 7, 1862
General Blunt has big victory at Prairie Grove
1863
January 1, 1863
Homestead Act takes effectFrom the inception of the United States there was a clamor for ever-increasing liberalism in the disposition of land. This became a demand of the Free-Soil party, which saw such distribution as a means of stopping the spread of slavery into the territories. The Southern states’ secession cleared the way for its adoption allowing anyone to file for a quarter-section of free land (160 acres) with specified requirements.
January 1, 1863
Emancipation Proclamation Enacted
Emancipation Proclamation EnactedIssued by President Lincoln, the proclamation declared forever free those slaves within the Confederacy.
June 1863
General Thomas Ewing Jr takes command
General Thomas Ewing Jr takes commandGeneral Thomas Ewing Jr takes command of the Mo-Kansas Border
July 1, 1863 - July 4, 1863
Union prevails at Gettysburg and Vicksburg
Union prevails at Gettysburg and VicksburgKansas troops involved in latter campaign.
August 21, 1863
Quantrill's raid on Lawrence
August 23, 1863
3 ½ counties in western Missouri evacuated
3 ½ counties in western Missouri evacuatedGeneral Thomas Ewing, Jr. issues Order No. 11 – 3 ½ counties in western Missouri evacuated.
October 1863
General Jo Shelby raids
General Jo Shelby raidsGeneral Jo Shelby raids into Missouri up to Marshall. Kansas troops used in pursuit.
October 18, 1863
2nd Battle of Carthage
2nd Battle of CarthageGeneral Ewing captures Shelby’s rear guard
October 6, 1863
Quantrill slaughters Blunt's federals
Quantrill slaughters Blunt's federalsQuantrill slaughters Blunt's federals near Baxter Springs; also attacks Fort Blair.
November 1863
General Order No 20
General Order No 20General Order No 20 issued by Ewing partially rescinds Order No. 11
November 25, 1863
Battle of Chattanooga
Battle of ChattanoogaJohn A. Martin's Eighth Kansas instrumental at Mission Ridge and Orchard Knob.
1864
January 1, 1864
Curtis takes command of Department of Kansas
Curtis takes command of Department of KansasGeneral Samuel Curtis takes command of Department of Kansas.
September 19, 1864
Price enters Missouri
Price enters MissouriConfederate General Sterling Price enters Missouri leading approx. 15,000 troops.
September 19, 1864
Doniphan burned by Union troops
September 26, 1864
Battle of Ironton, MO
Battle of Ironton, MOBattle of Ironton, MO – Price against 1,000 Union troops.
September 27, 1864
Centralia Massacres by Bloody Bill Anderson
September 27, 1864
Battle of Pilot Knob, MO.
Battle of Pilot Knob, MO.General Ewing decimates 1/15th of Price’s Army
September 28, 1864
Ewing & command escape Pilot Knob
Ewing & command escape Pilot KnobEwing & command escape Pilot Knob and lead Price on chase through Ozark hills for 4 days thus giving St. Louis time to fortify. Battles of the Huzzah, Red Haw, and Leasburg fought during retreat.
September 28, 1864
Ewing & command escape Pilot Knob
Ewing & command escape Pilot KnobEwing & command escape Pilot Knob and lead Price on chase through Ozark hills for 4 days thus giving St. Louis time to fortify. Battles of the Huzzah, Red Haw, and Leasburg fought during retreat.
September 8, 1864
Republican State Convention in Kansas
October 13, 1864
Battle of Glasgow, MO
October 17, 1864
Capture of Sedalia, MO by Shelby’s troops
October 19, 1864
Battle of Lexington
Battle of LexingtonBattle of Lexington (Salt Pond Rd). Beginning of days of battle culminating at Mine Creek.
October 21, 1864
Fighting at Independence and at Little Blue
October 23, 1864
Battle of Westport
Battle of WestportBattle of Westport, Price forced south down the Kansas border
October 25, 1864
Battle of Mine Creek, Linn County
October 28, 1864
2nd Battle of Newtonia
October 6, 1864
Battle of the Osage (Prince’s Ford)
October 8, 1864
Governor Carney calls out state militia
Governor Carney calls out state militiaGovernor Carney calls out state militia to meet threat from Gen. Sterling Price
November 8, 1864
Samuel Crawford elected governor
Samuel Crawford elected governorGeneral election held; Samuel Crawford elected governor
December 11, 1864
Railroad reaches Lawrence
1865
President: Andrew Johnson
January 11, 1865
Manumission Proclamation freeing Missouri’s slaves
Manumission Proclamation freeing Missouri’s slavesGovernor Thomas Fletcher signs Manumission Proclamation freeing Missouri’s slaves.
April 14, 1865
President Lincoln assassinatedPresident Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth
April 9, 1865
The Civil War “officially” ends
The Civil War “officially” endsGeneral Robert E. Lee surrenders to General U.S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, effectively ending the military’s role in the Civil War but not the feelings that initiated it in the first place. Issues along the Missouri-Kansas border continue.
August 5, 1865
Voting Rights Act passed by CongressConcerted but unsuccessful efforts to break the grip of state’s rights had been under way for some time. The unprovoked attack on March 7, 1965, by state troopers on peaceful marchers crossing the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, en route to the state capitol in Montgomery, persuaded the Pres
1866
1865 - 1877
Reconstruction in old South
1867
1868
1869
President: Ulysses S. Grant
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
President: Rutherford B. Hayes
1878
1879
1879 - 1880
Exodusters MovementThousands of African Americans, many of them formerly enslaved, move north and west to Kansas for more freedom and greater opportunities.
1880
1881
President: Garfield(James A. Garfield)
1882
President: Chester Alan Arthur
1883
1884
1885
President: Grover Cleveland
1886
1887
1887
Dawes Severality Act creates allotment system
Dawes Severality Act creates allotment system
1888
1889
President: Benjamin Harrison
1890
1891
1892
1893
President: Grover Cleveland
1894
1895
1896
1896
Supreme Court rules "separate but equal" legal
Supreme Court rules "separate but equal" legal
1897
President: William McKinley
1898
1899
1900
1901
President: Theodore Roosevelt
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
President: William H. Taft
1909
NAACP in NYC
NAACP in NYC
1910
1911
1912
1913
President: Woodrow Wilson
1914
1915
1916
1917
1917
Blacks migrate north and west
Blacks migrate north and west
1918
1919
1920
1920
19th Amendment gives women right to vote
19th Amendment gives women right to vote
1921
President: Warren G. Harding
1922
1923
President: Calvin Coolidge
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
President: Herbert Hoover
1930
1931
1932
1933
President: Franklin D. Roosevelt
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
President: Harry S. Truman
April 12, 1945
Harry S. Truman assumes Presidency of USHarry S. Truman from Independence, MO, assumes Presidency of US. Building on the hard work and effort of the NAACP as well as other groups and individuals over decades, Truman energizes the modern civil rights movement by desegregating the U.S. Armed Forces.
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
President: Dwight D. Eisenhower
1954
January 17, 1954
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, KansasSupreme Court decision on the landmark case unanimously agreeing that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional.
1955
1955
Blacks boycott buses in Montgomery
Blacks boycott buses in Montgomery
1955
Supreme Court orders school desegregation
Supreme Court orders school desegregation
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
President: John F. Kennedy
1962
1963
President: Lyndon B. Johnson
1964
June 15, 1964
Civil Rights Act passed by Congress
Civil Rights Act passed by CongressPrecipitated by the Brown v Board of Education ruling, it took several more years before the United States finally passed this act to enforce the rights for its citizens of color.
1965
August 5, 1965
Voting Rights Act passed by CongressConcerted but unsuccessful efforts to break the grip of state’s rights had been under way for some time. The unprovoked attack on March 7, 1965, by state troopers on peaceful marchers crossing the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, en route to the state capitol in Montgomery, persuaded the President and Congress to overcome Southern legislators' resistance to effective voting rights legislation. President Johnson issued a call for a strong voting rights law and hearings began soon thereafter on the bill that would become the Voting Rights Act. These events continue the struggle for freedom for which Freedom’s Frontier National Heritage Area is founded.
1966
1967
1968
1969
President: Richard M. Nixon
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
President: Gerald Ford
1975
1976
1977
President: Jimmy Carter
1978
1979
1980
1981
President: Ronald Reagan
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
President: George H. W. Bush
1990
1991
1992
1993
President: Bill Clinton
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
President: George W. Bush
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
October 12, 2006
FFNHA Enabling Legislation
FFNHA Enabling LegislationThis legislation further establishes an effort to connect the significant stories and events that forever changed our nation’s geography and ideals. From the early period of westward expansion through the quest for Kansas’ statehood, into the Border War and Civil War, it fanned events in this area forcing individuals to examine their definitions of “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” The collision of these concepts of freedom incited and fueled a bloody struggle whose impact echoes through the decades into the present.
2007
2008
2009
President: Barack Obama
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
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